термины по физике

Кіріктірілген білім беру бағдарламасы «Физика» пәні бойынша 7,11 сыныптарда қолданылатын терминдер.

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Kazkah

Russian

Аbsolute zero

Absolute zero is the theoretical

temperature at which atoms stop

vibrating. All atoms have vibrational energy,

even in solids, but if we cool them, they

vibrate less. In practice, absolute zero

would seem to be impossible to reach — but

we can get to within millionths of a degree

of it.

Абсолюттік нөл

Абсолютный нуль

Аcceleration

Rate of change in velocity. If a body

increases its speed (the result of a force

acting on it) then it is said to have positive

acceleration. See also deceleration*

Үдеу

Ускорение

Аmmeter

A device for measuring current. An

ammeter is always connected directly into a

circuit in series* with the components

through which the current is flowing. A good

ammeter will have virtually no resistance*.

Амперметр

Амперметр

Аmpere

The unit of electrical current, normally

abbreviated to amp or A. 1 amp is equal to

a flow of 1 coulomb* of charge* per second.

This translates to the formula, amps =

coulombs ÷ seconds.

Ампер

Ампер

Аmplitude

The maximum displacement that an

oscillation or wave has from its rest

position. A measure of the energy contained

in the motion or wave, large amplitude

sounds are louder; large amplitude light

waves are brighter.

Амплитуда

Амплитуда

Аnion

A negatively-charged ion*.

Анион

Анион

Аstronomical unit

An astronomical unit (AU) is defined as the

average distance between the Earth

and the Sun (approximately 148 million

kilometers).

Астрономиялық бірлік

Астрономическая единица

Аtmosphere

A layer of gases that envelops a planet,

moon or other celestial body.

Атмосфера (ауа)

Атмосфера

Аtom

The building blocks of matter. Once

thought to be indivisible particles*, atoms

are now understood to consist of electrons*,

protons* and neutrons*.

Атом

Атом

Battery

A group of electrical cells connected in

series to provide an energy source for a

circuit*.

Жинақтауыш, шоғырлағыш

Аккумулятор

Cation

A positively-charged ion*.

Катион

Катион

Cell

An energy source providing an

electrical potential difference between

its two terminals such that a current* can

flow between them. A cell’s energy is stored

internally as chemicals that react with each

other.

Шаршы

Клетка

Charge (Q)

Electrical charge is a property or quality

that some particles* (and hence

bodies) can have which gives rise to

forces of attraction or repulsion between

those particles. Charge is measured in

coulombs* and is represented by the

symbol, Q.

Заряд

Заряд

Circuit

An electrical circuit consists of an energy

source connected by conductors to

electrical components.

Сұлба

Схема

Conductor

A conductor is a medium through which

an electric current* will flow.

Өткізгіш

Проводник

Constellation

One of the 88 named patterns of stars.

For example, the seven brightest stars in

the constellation Ursa Major form the

Plough.

Шоқжұлдыз

Созвездие

Coulomb

The unit of electrical charge*. 1 coulomb

is abbreviated to C.

Кулон

Кулон

Current (I)

Electrical current is the flow of charges*.

In wires, the charges are carried by

electrons*. In fluids*, the charges are

carried by ions*. Current is measured in

amperes* and is represented by the

symbol, I.

Ағымдағы

Текущий

Deceleration

Deceleration is acceleration* in the

opposite direction to the direction of motion- in other words, slowing down, or negative acceleration.

Бәсеңдету

Замедление

Displacement

Displacement is distance moved in a particular direction. Its unit is m.

Жылжыту

Смещение

Electron

particles* that make up atoms*. Electrons

are by far the smallest in mass of the three fundamental particles. They have a negative charge of -1.6 × 10-19 C.

Электрон

Электрон

Element (chemical)

A chemical element is something that cannot be split into smaller components

through chemical reactions.

Элемент

Элемент

Energy

Energy enables something to do physical

work involving the application of a force.

Энергия

Энергия

Fission

The splitting of an atomic nucleus.This is what is done in nuclear reactors. A

neutron is absorbed by the nucleus (making

the nucleus unstable) which then splits into

two smaller nuclei. For nuclei larger than

iron, this process releases energy

Бөлшектену

Расщепление

Fluid

Something that can flow. Often mistaken

as being another word for liquid, in fact

both gases and liquids are fluids.

Сұйықтық

Жидкость

Force

Forces are pushes and pulls that make

things move or change shape.

Күш

Сила

Frequency

How many times something occurs in a given time, normally per second.

Frequency is measured in hertz (Hz)

where 1 Hz = 1 per second.

Жиілік

Частота

Friction

Friction is a resisting force between two

surfaces rubbing against each other.

Үйкеліс

Трение

Fusion

Fusion is the joining of atomic nuclei to

form a larger nucleus. Fusion powers the

Sun and stars. It is hoped that we will one

day be able to use the energy from

hydrogen fusion to provide for our energy

needs. Fusion only releases energy for

nuclei that are smaller than iron.

Қосылу

Слияние

Galaxy

very large cluster of stars in space, normally hundreds of millions of stars, but sometimes as many as hundreds of billions.

Note that the stars in the night sky are all

relatively nearby in our own galaxy, the

Milky Way*.



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