термины по лексикологии.

Vocabulary – 1) a list or collection of words or of words and phrases usually alphabetically arranged and explained or defined; 2) a sum or stock of words employed by a language, group, individual, or work or in a field of knowledge; 3) a list or collection of terms or codes available for use (as in an indexing system); 4) a supply of expressive techniques or devices (as of an art form).

Lexical semantic — is the study of the meanings of words. As well as the simple meaning of a lexical unit, lexical semantics studies how a word represents the meaning it conveys. In this sense, it studies the word’s existence as a whole.

Figurative meaning — is a meaning that is not literal; the meaning used is not the meaning of the word or phrase itself, but a different meaning implied by it.

Word — sound or a combination of sounds, or its representation in writing or printing, that symbolizes and communicates a meaning and may consist of a single morpheme or of a combination of morphemes.

Phonetical motivation — when there is a certain similarity between the sounds that make up the word and those referred to by the sense, the motivation is phonetical.

Hyponymy – the semantic relation of being subordinate or belonging to a lower rank or class.

Derogatory – insulting and disapproving.

Synchronic approach — is one that analyzes the evolution of something over time, allowing one to assess how that something changes throughout history.

Development of meaning – the gradual growth of meaning so that it becomes more advanced.

Denotational meaning — the type of meaning which reflects the concept of a class and is actualised by lexical items in situations when they denote a class of referents/denotata, is supported by the generalising and classifying function of the articles.

Ellipsis — is the omission from a sentence of words which are normally needed to complete the grammatical construction or meaning.

Phrase — is a group of words (or sometimes a single word) that form a constituent and so function as a single unit in the syntax of a sentence.

Connotational meaning — the associated or secondary meaning of a word or expression in addition to its explicit or primary meaning.

Major meaning – the main important or first meaning of the word.

Semasiology — is a branch of linguistics, which studies the meaning of the language units.

Change of meaning — the changes of meaning that words undergo is called semantics (from Greek semantikos “having meaning, signifying”). So semantic change is a change in one of the meanings of a word.

Specialization of meaning -it often happens in the history of a language that a word which originally had a wider implication begins to be used in a strict or narrow sense.

Lexical meaning — the meaning of the base in a paradigm.

Paradigmatic relation — a paradigmatic relation is a relation that holds between elements of the same category, i.e. elements that can be substituted for each other.

Lexicology — The branch of linguistics that deals with the lexical component of language.

Primary/secondary meaning – main, the most important meaning/second, less important meaning.

Notion — a general understanding; vague or imperfect conception or idea of something: a notion of how something should be done.

Positive evaluation —

Distribution – the act of giving things to a large group of people.

Hyperonym — is a word or phrase whose semantic field is included within that of another word, its hypernym (sometimes spelled hyperonym outside of the natural language processing communit).

Antropomorphimic metaphors – metaphors which means the attribution of human form or behaviour to a deity, animal, etc.

Syntagmatic relations — are linear sequence (линейная последовательность) relations of linguistick unit when they are used in speech (are possibilities of combinations). Can be presented as a horizontal line.

Dominant element – more powerful and noticeable among other elements.

Synonymic set — a group of things of the same kind that belong together and are synonyms.

Differention of synonyms

Synonyms (different types)

Seme — an elementary unit of meaning, usually a defining feature or characteristic of something.

Referent — is a person or thing to which a linguistic expression refers, a discursive entity, the subject of speech.

Endearing and deminitive suffixes

Polysemantic word — a word having more than one meaning.

Metonymy – a figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated, as in the use of Washington for the United States government or of the sword for military power.

Extra-linguistic reality —

Metaphor — A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison.

Extension of meaning